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- The Magnetospheric Cusps : Structure and Dynamics (2005, Hardcover).
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Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information This collection of papers will address the question "What is the Magnetospheric Cusp? The cusps have traditionally been described as narrow funnel-shaped regions that provide a focus of the Chapman-Ferraro currents that flow on the magnetopause, a boundary between the cavity dominated by the geomagnetic field i.
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Measurements from a number of recent satellite programs have shown that the cusp is not confined to a narrow region near local noon but appears to encompass a large portion of the dayside high-latitude magnetosphere. It appears that the cusp is a major source region for the production of energetic charged particles for the magnetosphere. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product.
About this product Product Information This collection of papers will address the question "What is the Magnetospheric Cusp? The cusps have traditionally been described as narrow funnel-shaped regions that provide a focus of the Chapman-Ferraro currents that flow on the magnetopause, a boundary between the cavity dominated by the geomagnetic field i. Measurements from a number of recent satellite programs have shown that the cusp is not confined to a narrow region near local noon but appears to encompass a large portion of the dayside high-latitude magnetosphere.
Mercury's Magnetospheric Cusps and Cross-Tail Current Sheet: Structure and Dynamics
It appears that the cusp is a major source region for the production of energetic charged particles for the magnetosphere. This book will be of great interest to scientists in Space Physics as well as to those working in research organizations in governments and industries, university departments of physics, astronomy, space physics, and geophysics. Part of this book has already been published in a journal. Additional Product Features Number of Volumes. From the reviews:"A book discussing the structure and dynamics of magnetospheric cusps will mainly interest graduate level scientists working in geophysics and particularly those studying the Earth's magnetosphere.
The editors have gathered together and surveyed contemporary knowledge on magnetospheric cusps and they have advanced the field by clearly defining the issues and by leading forward a coherent development of the terminology. On a typical ascending pass, the spacecraft passes from the magnetosheath into the dayside magnetosphere. It then crosses through the cusp and into the northern magnetospheric lobe.
For a descending pass, this sequence is reversed. We make extensive use of observed density in our analysis, that is, the density calculated from the measured counts alone, with no attempt to correct for the fraction of the distribution sampled. Additional details of FIPS plasma measurements, the observed density calculation, and ion groups have been given by Raines et al. These analyses facilitate interpretation of ion motion relative to Mercury and the local magnetic field. Individual measured events were corrected for efficiency and measurement geometry, accumulated, and then normalized with respect to observation time in each bin to obtain physical units such as flux or phase space density.
The dimensionless unit steradians are included only by convention, as this flux quantity can be equivalently formulated such that steradians do not naturally appear. To make these energies easier to see in the figure, groups of four measured energy bins have been combined, but such a coarser binning has no substantive effect on the interpretation. The fifth panel gives total magnetic field intensity. The length of the crossing does not necessarily give a complete picture of the cusp size, however, as it depends on the orientation of MESSENGER's orbit and can be affected by cusp dynamics.
The record of magnetic field magnitude shows several depressions, which are interpreted as diamagnetic in nature, i.
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However, as for most plasma analyzers, the FIPS detection threshold decreases with increasing energy along with the volume of phase space measured, i. The next cusp example is different and illustrates the contrasting ion populations we found. There is much more variability in the energy spectra, both in distribution and magnitude. Furthermore, an angled feature is evident in the proton energy spectrogram starting around UTC.
This feature appears to be a velocity dispersion signature, which has been shown at Earth to result from the passage of reconnected field lines through the cusp, either from continuous dayside reconnection [ Rosenbauer et al. Cusp protons were at higher energies than in the previous example.
These ions appeared near the crossing through the magnetopause, into the dayside magnetosphere, and were measured on nearly every scan up to and through the cusp. In contrast to the cusp crossing of orbit , the magnetic field magnitude in the active cusp was highly variable, showing not only stronger diamagnetic depressions but also rapid few second duration fluctuations of up to nT during which the field intensity increased as well as decreased.
Some of these transients were likely FTEs that resulted from episodic reconnection [ Slavin et al. This crossing displays characteristics that are unmatched among the orbits examined in this study. There was a large proton flux, with many bright higher flux stripes.
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There were large numbers of planetary ions, both in the cusp and in the dayside region. For plasma ions, kinetic properties of ion flow direction and energy distribution provide the most fundamental information about their behavior. These accumulations were averaged over a wide range of upstream solar wind conditions and magnetospheric configurations but exhibit average structure with respect to the locally measured magnetic field that are indicative of predominant sources. The coordinate system used is a variant of Mercury solar magnetospheric MSM coordinates, but one centered on the FIPS sensor rather than the planetary magnetic dipole.
These plots are normalized for viewing time and effects of projection to the MSM coordinate system as described above. The magnetic field direction varied over this accumulation, so it is included only to help orient the reader. Moments of these data were taken using the method described by Gershman et al. These moments, as well as a curve of the modeled distribution, are superimposed over the observed distribution to aid identification and interpretation of departures of the observed distribution from equilibrium.
This spread in ion flow direction is consistent with hot plasma of low sonic Mach number. The distribution seems to be offset in the parallel direction, toward the surface. There is also a clear depletion in the antiparallel direction, away from the surface. These features are also apparent in the energy distributions. We interpret these results as indicating that hot protons are flowing into the cusp from the magnetosheath, as indicated in their energy distributions by large perpendicular components and a parallel i.
Ions with a dominant perpendicular component to their energy mirror in the magnetic field and move radially outward from the cusp. Those that are more closely aligned with the field, however, are within the loss cone and impact the planet below the cusp.
The observations in the dayside magnetosphere south of the cusp latitude necessitate a more restricted analysis. Furthermore, this beam appears to be largely perpendicular to the magnetic field. This behavior is much less clear in the histogram of dayside proton flow directions, possibly because of low proton counts there. The presence of beam distributions has two important implications for the interpretation of our data.
First, the plasma appears to be moving largely perpendicular to the magnetic field. This behavior could indicate that the plasma is on moving field lines or has been recently picked up. Second, this motion causes the parallel and perpendicular energy distributions to no longer reflect only the thermal properties of the distribution.
We therefore restricted our analysis of these distributions to ion flow direction histograms. We examined these histograms for 11 of the 77 cusps to assess the generality of the beam distributions. We found dayside regions on two other orbits that clearly showed beams: 29 September , — UTC orbit and 13 October , — UTC orbit Dayside magnetosphere regions from other orbits of the 11 examined showed some evidence of beaming, e. The character of the beam signature will depend on the relative orientation of the spacecraft passage through the cusp, the FIPS FOV orientation, and the direction of plasma motion.
This fact, along with the qualitative nature of these directional histograms, makes more general identification of the beams challenging and requires more extensive data coverage that is beyond the scope of this work. Nonetheless, the presence of beam distributions, which these events establish, is an important point to which we return in section 5.
It is immediately clear that most of the ions observed by FIPS in the cusp are not simply ejected from the surface or photoionized from exospheric neutrals there.
sizejoruza.gq The observed ions have substantially higher energies 2. It may be possible that ions that have been either photoionized from the exosphere or ejected directly from the surface and later accelerated prior to measurement by FIPS could account for their high average energies. Test particle simulations by Horwitz [ ] showed that ions released in the northern cusp with the right energy 0. Increasing the field and lowering the energy of the ions increases trapping.
Delcourt et al.